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远人无目 ——谈罗奇油画中的“远”境 刘绍瑾(暨南大学文学院教授、博士生导师

1已有 1598 次阅读  2013-10-22 18:06   标签暨南大学  博士生  文学院  style  刘绍瑾 

 

 

 

远人无目

——谈罗奇油画中的“远”境

 

刘绍瑾(暨南大学文学院教授、博士生导师)

 

 

传统与现代、中国与西方,它们的冲突、碰撞、选择、融合,堪称近一百多年来中国文艺发展的主干线。我坚持认为,同以语言、文字为传达媒介的文学相比,以线条、色彩为表达工具的绘画,在中西交流、融通上具有天然的优势。作为形音指事会意的方块汉子,负载了太多的中国传统文化内涵,也成为西方人难以进入其奥堂的重要障碍。西方人谈中国古典诗歌和文学批评,总给人难免一“隔”的印象!而绘画,尽管中西方由于文化背景和哲学底蕴的差异而呈现不同的形态,但毕竟其传达媒介为具有物质性特征的线条、色彩,最终呈现的也是一种直接诉诸视觉的形象(图像),比较容易为不同语言、不同文化背景的人们所理解、所接受。

正是基于这样一种理解,我认为在中西文艺的对话、交融上,美术界的艺术家们具有大显身手的广阔天地!而站在我们面前的广东年轻画家罗奇,正是在这方面的探索显示出特别的意义!他用西方正宗的艺术类型油画表现了中国传统山水画悠然澹远的意境,并把二者有效地进行了融合。

罗奇主攻的是油画,而油画是西洋画的正宗,与我们的传统国画(山水画)不同路数。罗奇早期的一些作品,也具有西方现代派意韵,如创作于2003年的《寻找》,画面呈现的是一个瘦高个近视男士,左手扶着眼镜,右手张开摸索似要寻找什么。他摘下眼镜究竟在寻找什么?但画面的地板上却空无一物,一片灰白!这种艺术效果就很容易使人联想到西方现代著名的荒诞派戏剧《等待戈多》:焦躁地等待,可等待的主角戈多却始终没有出现,原来等待的是一场空!我不知道罗奇此画是否受到贝克特《等待戈多》的启发,但一个“寻找”,一个“等待”,两者却有异曲同工之妙,把世界、人生的焦虑、紧张、荒谬、虚无的宭境尽情揭示出来。

与之形成鲜明对照的是,后来(大约2007年以后)罗奇也创作了许多以“寻找”为主题的作品,那就是《亲爱的,我带你去寻找……》题式的系列油画,我们看到的却是与中国传统山水画精神的脉通。关于这一系列作品,可能不同读者还会有别样解读,但我却看到一个“远”字:这个“远”就是宋人郭熙提出的“高远”、“深远”、“平远”,也如晋代诗人陶渊明诗“暧暧远人村”中的“远”。这里没有了罗奇早期作品《寻找》中的紧张、夸张、对照和反讽,代之以平和、恬静、淡雅、缥缈。理想、精神既有桃花源式的与现实的疏离、超脱,技法上也充分借鉴了中国传统国画的“留白”法和布局意识。杜甫有诗曰“篇终接混茫”,画面留下的大片空白,接通了寥廓苍茫的宇宙、时间和空间,把“远”的效果淋漓尽致的发挥出来,给欣赏着留下无限的遐想……

当今的世界情势,由于人类欲望的膨胀,科学与理性横行,人与自然的关系处于高度紧张的状态。在此背景下,绿色环保运动蓬勃兴起,诸如生态哲学、生态伦理学、生态美学之类的学问也应运而生并成为显学。大凡涉猎生态美学的中国学者,很容易得出这样一个结论:中国古典美学具有丰富的生态智慧和宝贵资源!罗奇后期的油画探索,既是对中国传统国画精髓的借鉴与回望,又何尝不是对日益激烈的现代挑战的艺术反应!

“远人无目,远树无枝。远山无石,……远水无波。”这是托名王维《山水论》中的名言。郭熙在《林泉高致·山川训》中进一步发挥道:“不厌其远,所以极人目之旷望也。远山无皴,远水无波,远人无目,非无也,如无耳。”中国绘画深谙“无”的表达功能。在罗奇的后期油画中,人物的“无目”(或者曰近似于“无目”)也是一大亮点,它们大大加强了“远”之艺术效果,是罗奇“不伤害”的自然主义理念的集中表现。本来,眼睛是心灵的窗口,顾长康就曾言“四体妍蚩,本无关於妙处,传神写照正在阿堵中。”但罗奇的《亲爱的,我带你去寻找……》系列油画及其同期创作的系列作品《睡不醒的人》,却有一个共同特征,画中人物的目光呆滞无神,或者干脆没有眼睛(我称之为“无目”)。这里大有哲学深意。《庄子·应帝王》篇就有一则著名的“浑沌之死”的寓言故事,其曰:“南海之帝为儵,北海之帝为忽,中央之帝为浑沌。儵与忽时相与遇于浑沌之地,浑沌待之甚善。儵与忽谋报浑沌之德,曰:‘人皆有七窍以视听食息,此独无有,尝试凿之。’日凿一窍,七日而浑沌死。”“浑沌”是人类素朴、完整、自然原性的人格化身,而开凿七窍则是人类自以为聪明的“人为”运作行为,一个潘拉多的盒子给打开了,从此人类在破坏自然的道路上滔滔不反,越走越远。浑沌死在这里几乎就成了一个旷世的先知和预言。联系起来理解罗奇的作品,他的画中那些与炯炯有神、精明便捷判然有别的“无目”(或目光呆滞、反应迟钝、睡不醒)形象,是否就是庄子寓言中“浑沌”的道体肉身呢!联想到罗奇“不伤害”的无为哲学理念,我想这样的理解大概不会成为“过度阐释”。People Unable to See Far Away

--Remarks on the Far Scenes in Luo Qi’s Paintings

 

By Liu Shaojin (professor and doctoral supervisor in College of Arts, Jinan University)

 

 

The conflict, collision, selection and integration between traditional and modern elements, as well as between Chinese and Western elements, are the main stream of Chinese literature development in the recent hundred years. I insist that, painting expressing by lines and colors, has a natural advantage in the communication and integration of Chinese and Western elements, compared with literature conveying through language and characters. Chinese characters supposed to be working in shape, sound, reference and understanding, carries too much Chinese traditional culture connotation, and has become a main barrier for the West to enter its esoteric hall. Westerners are always impressed with an "estrangement ", when they remark on Chinese classical poetry and literary criticism. While painting is relatively easy for people with different languages and cultural backgrounds to understand and accept, for it is conveyed by lines and colors with material feature, and finally renders a direct visual image (picture), though Chinese and Western people present different forms due to the differences in cultural background and philosophy.

According to this understanding, I think art artists can distinguish themselves in the dialogue and integration of Chinese and Western literary. Here is Luo Qi, a young painter from Guangdong, who shows us particular significance in exploring this aspect! He expresses and combines the leisurely scene in Chinese traditional landscape painting by Western original art painting effectively.

Luo Qi is majoring in oil painting, the origin of Western painting, which is different from our traditional Chinese painting (landscape painting). The connotation of Western modernism is also seen in some early works of Luo Qi, such as "Searching" created in 2003, which presents a thin tall short-sighted man, supporting his glasses with left hand, stretching his right hand, seemed like looking for something. He takes off glasses, looking for something. However, the floor is totally empty, with nothing! This kind of artistic effect easily reminds us of the famous Western modern absurdist drama "Waiting for Godot": fretfully waiting, but the protagonist Godot never appears, and it is waiting for nothing! I don't know whether Luo Qi is inspired by Beckett’s "Waiting for Godot", but "searching" and "waiting" are different in approach but equally satisfactory in result, revealing the anxious, intensive, absurd and virtual situation of the world and life.

By contrast, Luo Qi also creates many works at the theme of "Searching" later (about 2007), such as a series of oil paintings like "Darling, I Will Lead You to Find...", in which we can see the spirit from Chinese traditional landscape painting. In this series of works, different readers may have a different understanding, but I have a "far" feeling, as described by a painter of Song Dynasty, Guo Xi, "lofty", "far-reaching" and "broad", as well as by Tao Yuanming of a Chinese poet of the Six Dynasties in the poem, "villages far away faintly visible". Instead of gentle, tranquil, elegant and misty atmosphere, there is no tension, exaggeration, contrast and irony in Luo Qi’s early works. Not only the ideal and spirit has the kind of alienation and aloofness away from reality in Peach Blossom Spring, but also on techniques, he makes full use of the "blank" method and the layout consciousness in Chinese traditional painting. Du Fu once said, "The end of poem should make it all blend into one harmoniously to an infinite flavor." That is leaving large blank to the vast universe, time and space, presenting the "far" effect to no end, and bringing the appreciators infinite imagination.

Nowadays the relationship between man and nature is intense to a high extent, due to the expansion of human desire and the spread of science and reason. In this situation, the green environmental protection movement springs, knowledge such as ecological philosophy, ecological ethics and ecological aesthetics emerging to be main study. It is easy for most Chinese scholars dabbling ecological aesthetics to draw such a conclusion that Chinese classical aesthetics has rich ecological wisdom and valuable resources! Luo Qi's later exploration on oil painting, not only draws lessons from and reviews the essence of the Chinese traditional painting, but also is an artistic reaction to the increasingly fierce modern challenges!

"People are unable to see those details far away such as branches of trees, rocks of hills and waves of water." This is a famous saying in "On Mountains and Streams" of Wang Wei. Guo Xi further explains in "Picturesque Forest Spring - Mountains and Rivers" that "No matter how far it is, it is far beyond sight. It seems that hills far away have no rocks; water, no waves; people, no eyes; it is not real, but looks like." Chinese painting knows well what "blank" can do. In the later paintings of Luo Qi, figures with "no eyes" (or similar to "no eyes") is a highlight, which greatly strengthened the artistic "far" effect, and is the main expression of Luo Qi's "no harm" naturalism philosophy. Originally, eyes are the window to soul. Gu Changkang once said "Whether the body is beautiful or not, has nothing to do with the romantic charm. The eyes are the key to a vivid portrait." However, one common characteristic is seen in Luo Qi's series oil painting of "Darling, I Will Lead You to Find..." and "Sleepy Man that Can’t Wake Up" series created at the corresponding period, that is the figures with dull eyes, or no eyes (which I call "no-eyed people"). A big philosophical meaning lies in it. There is a famous fable about the death of "Chaos" in "Zhuangzi - Answers for The King". It is said, "The King of South China Sea is Shu. The King of North China Sea is Hu. The King of the Central China is Chaos. Sometimes Shu and Hu meet each other in Chaos’s land, and he is nice to them. The two kings plan to repay Chaos for his goodness. They say, 'there are seven apertures in the human head, but Chaos has not. We can try to dig the same for him.' One aperture a day, Chaos dies on the seventh day." "Chaos" is the simple, intact and natural primary personality of human, while digging seven apertures is a "man-made" operation thought to be wise. The box of Pandora is opened. The human walks further and further with no reverse on the road of destroying nature. The death of "Chaos" almost becomes a great prophet and prophecy. Connected to the understanding of Luo Qi's works, the "no eyes" (or dull eyes, dull, sleeping) image, which is distinct from the vigorous and smart ones, should be the body of "Chaos" in the fable of Zhuangzi! Associating with Luo Qi's "no harm" inaction philosophy, I think it probably won't be a "over interpretation".

 

 

 

 

 

 

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